10 years of Rhinodipterus

Let me tell you about my favourite fossil lungfish.

Rhinodipterus is a long-snouted, tooth-plated lungfish known from the Mid-Late Devonian Period (roughly 390-360 million years ago). There were a handful of species of Rhinodipterus known from throughout Europe described during the mid 20th Century. However, a new specimen unearthed in 2008 from the Gogo Formation in Australia sparked my involvement and interest in this lungfish.

The Gogo Formation is particularly rich in lungfish fossils and this new find represented the 11th described species from this one locality. Most equivalent deposits may have just one or sometimes two species present, but clearly the lungfish were very diverse on the ancient Gogo reef! And interestingly, this European genus (Rhinodipterus) had for the first time appeared in a different part of the world, all the way over in Australia. This is something we refer to as ‘palaeobiogeographic distribution’. I named the new species Rhinodipterus kimberleyensis, to reflect the location where this fossil was found (the Kimberley region of northern Western Australia).

* CLEMENT, A. M. (2012) A new species of long-snouted lungfish from the Late Devonian of Australia, and its functional and biogeographic implications. Palaeontology 55, 51-71.

Aside from being a new species, the most interesting thing about Rhinodipterus are certain features of its skeleton that are missing from other lungfish at Gogo. Rhinodipterus has cranial ribs which suggests it may have been able to breathe air! Cranial ribs are mobilized during the air gulping action in living lungfish and so their presence (as well as a suite of other features) are used to infer this ability in fossil forms. While we know all living lungfish can breathe air, it is finds such as these that help us pinpoint when this feature first evolved in the fossil lineage.

* CLEMENT, A. M. and Long, J. A. (2010a) Air-breathing adaptation in a marine Devonian lungfish. Biology Letters 6, 509-512.

* CLEMENT, A. M., Long, J. A., Tafforeau, P. and Ahlberg, P. E. (2016b) The dipnoan buccal pump reconstructed in 3D and implications for air breathing in Devonian lungfishes. Paleobiology, 42(2), 289-304.

Furthermore, the specimen of Rhinodipterus that I described was so well preserved and uncrushed, it contained a near complete part of the skull called the braincase. As it’s name suggests, the braincase houses the brain inside the skull. Most lungfish fossils younger than the Devonian become more cartilaginous and don’t tend to fossilise particularly well (unlike bone, which is a harder and more durable material), so this is one of the most advanced fossil lungfish braincases known. Via CT-scanning and computer 3D-modelling I was able to create a virtual ‘endocast’ (mould of the internal cavity) of the braincase. These endocasts can give a lot of information about the early brain evolution in this most wonderful group of fishes (I’m not biased at all!) and help us to reconstruct brain morphology in extinct animals.

* CLEMENT, A. M., and Ahlberg, P. E. (2014) The First Virtual Cranial Endocast of a Lungfish (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi). PloS One, 19 pp.

* CLEMENT, A. M., Strand, R., Nysjö, J., Long, J. A. and Ahlberg, P. E. (2016c) A New Method for Reconstructing Brain Morphology: Applying The Brain-Neurocranial Spatial Relationship In An Extant Lungfish To A Fossil Endocast. Royal Society Open Science, 8 pp.

Rhino_endo_updated_lateralR
A virtual cranial endocast of Rhinodipterus kimberleyensis in right lateral view.

As you can see, this single specimen of Rhinodipterus has been very valuable to my research over the years so I thought the least I could do was commemorate it with a blog post. Thank you, Rhino!

 

Fantastical Fish-a-pod’s Fish Fingers

It’s here, it’s here, Elpistostege is finally here!

What or who is Elpistostege, I hear you ask? Elpistostege is an ancient beastie that roamed the earth some 380 million years ago throughout parts of what is today Quebec in Canada. When fossils were first described it was thought they belonged to an ancient amphibian, before further finds suggested it was in fact a fish. The transition from fish (in the water) to the first land animals (with limbs and digits) was surely one of the greatest ever “steps” in evolution, and Elpistostege is perfectly placed to help us understand it.

KENNY Elpi reconstruction FINAL Aug26
Artwork by Katrina Kenny (https://katrinakennyartist.com.au/)

10 years ago, Prof Richard Cloutier from Université du Québec à Rimouski, discovered a new specimen of Elpistostege, and for the first time a complete skeleton of this animal was uncovered! The fossil is 1.6 m long and preserves a complete head, vertebral column and all the fins right up to the tail.

Richard invited some of the Flinders University Palaeontology group to work with him and his team in Canada on this exciting new fossil, which is where I come in (along with John Long and Mike Lee). The fossil was CT scanned at the University of Texas High-Resolution X-ray Facility so that detailed 3-D modelling of its skeleton could be done.

Alice, John & Richard 2019
Alice, John & Richard celebrating finishing the paper in 2019

Via this painstaking 3-D modelling of the scans (it took me months and months!), we revealed the internal bones of the pectoral skeleton (arm) including the presence of a humerus, radius, ulna, rows of carpal bones (e.g. your wrist bones), and other smaller bones (digits!). We have found the first fish fingers!

Excitingly, the digits are still contained within a fish fin. And as John and Richard put it in their recent Conversation article “This suggests the fingers of vertebrates, including of human hands, first evolved as rows of digit bones in the fins of Elpistostegalian fishes.” So next time you shake hands with someone (will we be doing that again?) or take a sip from a champagne flute (I’ll be doing that tonight), you know who you have to thank.

Read the full article in Nature here: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2100-8.pdf

  • Hear my radio interview on The Wire, with Lachlan McPherson here.

Rewriting evolution – our fishy origins

Tonight, Professor John Long, Strategic Professor of Palaeontology, will talk about “Rewriting evolution – our fishy origins” at the Alere Function Centre, Flinders University, as part of the BRAVE lecture series.

BRAVE

Come and hear about how the beginnings of the human body plan first appeared in fishes, deep in geological time. “Professor Long will discuss his thesis that the big steps in human evolution took place well before fishes left the water to invade land. This research provides a new perspective on humans’ evolutionary story; one which comes from looking up from the water’s edge, not looking down from the trees.

I’ll be on the panel for the discussion to follow John’s presentation, alongside Associate Professor Paul Willis (founder and CEO, Media Engagement Services) and Associate Professor Diego Garcia-Bellido (University of Adelaide and South Australian Museum).

IMG_4600
Paul Willis, Diego Garcia-Bellido, Alice Clement & John Long at Flinders BRAVE lecture

Drinks and canapes from 5:20, lecture begins at 6pm.

This event is free to attend but register your attendance here: https://www.eventbrite.com.au/e/brave-rewriting-evolution-our-fishy-origins-tickets-95533279611

Welcome, Tom!

The Flinders University Palaeo Lab welcomes Dr Tom Challands! Tom is a researcher in the evolution of early vertebrate sensory systems, visiting us for a couple of months from the University of Edinburgh School of Geosciences. Tom is here for collaboration on some fabulous fossil fish projects, before also visiting Curtin University in Perth.

Tom and I share a love of lungfish brains (not many who can say that), and we’ll also work on some Scottish Carboniferous rhizodont material that he has brought with him. We’ll be visiting ANSTO, the Australian Synchrotronin Melbourne next month to do some scanning. 

Exciting times ahead!

TomChallands2020

STEM Professionals in Schools

Did you know that CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) has a great program called “STEM Professionals in Schools” that facilitates partnerships between schools and industry to bring real STEM people into classrooms? (In case you forgot… STEM stands for Science, Technology, Engineering & Maths).

It’s a national volunteer network that I signed up for last year as I feel strongly about being a visible “Women in STEM” presence, particularly for young people. And the best bit was… I got to talk about fossils all afternoon with a very excitable and curious cohort of kids from Happy Valley Primary School! It was awesome – I took along some fossils for them to touch and pass around, and they threw me some really interesting questions.

I look forward to continuing this partnership and maybe even starting some new ones … if you would like some STEM professionals to visit your school, or you are a STEM professional interested in being involved, you can learn more about the program here: STEM Professionals in Schools. 

Alice & Mary
CHECK IT OUT, YO! I wore my Mary Anning T-shirt today (designed by my talented friend Eleri (https://elerimai.com/)

 

International Day of Women and Girls in Science – Tilly Edinger

Today is International Day of Women and Girls in Science – aimed at disabling long-standing gender stereotypes and biases that are steering girls and women away from science. What better way to celebrate than to talk about my favourite woman in palaeo from days gone by, Tilly Edinger. (Yes, I’ve mentioned her before).

Johanna Gabrielle Ottilie “Tilly” Edinger (1897–1967) was born into a prominent Jewish family in Frankfurt, Germany, to Anna (Goldschmid) Edinger, a prominent social activist and feminist, and Ludwig Edinger, a comparative neurologist. Tilly received her doctorate in natural philosophy from the University of Frankfurt in 1921 and became the curator of fossil vertebrates at the Senckenberg Museum in 1927.

Increased Nazi power in Germany forced Edinger to eventually flee from Germany in 1939. After finding refuge first in England, she continued her career at Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology, USA. She was the first woman to be elected President of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (1963).

Tilly Edinger almost singlehandedly founded modern palaeoneurology, the study of ‘fossil brains’ and neural evolution,  during the 1920s. Her first research paper (1921) described the natural endocast of the Mesozoic marine reptile Nothosaurus. Dr Tilly Edinger documented all previous examples of natural “endocasts”, examined them systematically and drew inferences about evolution. Prior to Tilly Edinger, scientists only looked at comparative neurology without any input through geological time.

My favourite aspect of my own research is the palaeoneurology of early fish and the first tetrapods, and I’m honoured to continue work is this almost century-old field established by a truly great woman of palaeo. Thank you, Tilly.

#WomenInScienceDay #WomenInSTEM #TillyEdinger #palaeoneurology

 

 

 

 

 

A Story of the Motherfish (a workshop)

Do you want to explore the history of fish evolution while also doing your bit to clean up our oceans? If yes, then A Story of the Motherfish workshops are for you!

I was invited to present insights into fish evolution and adaptation at the December event late last year at this special art and science collaboration, bought to you by Heaps Good Productions & Steve Hayter Design at the Marine Discovery Centre in Henley.

Henley

Participants were invited to bring their own plastic garbage and collected new rubbish from Henley Beach before using these polluting materials to create original pieces of artwork. Talks from myself gave insight into fish evolution and extinctions, and we heard from Georgie, a marine biologist, talking about the threat and other possible consequences of micro-plastics in our oceans today. Steve Hayter then inspired and led everyone to create their own marine-inspired pieces of recycled art.

There’s another workshop coming up on January 18th to be held at Port Adelaide, and then all the artwork created will be shown the artwork at an exhibition! What a better way to reduce plastic in the oceans and put it to a more creative use. The event is free to attend but please register your interest using the following link: https://www.eventbrite.com.au/e/a-story-of-the-motherfish-workshop-2-tickets-86630398855

 

Cooooool cassowary

Congratulations to Phoebe McInerney from the Flinders University Palaeo Lab who had her honours work published in BMC Evolutionary Biology yesterday!

The full title is “The phylogenetic significance of the morphology of the syrinx, hyoid and larynx, of the southern cassowary, Casuarius casuarius (Aves, Palaeognathae)”  and the paper was co-authored by Trevor Worthy, Mike Lee and myself.

We got to use some cool DiceCT and imaging methods to uncover the anatomy of the cassowary. The work found that the syrinx, hyoid and larynx structures (structures in the throat related to vocalisation, respiration and feeding) were more informative for inferring the phylogeny (evolutionary relationships) of this group compared to other typical morphological traits related to flightlessness and gigantism.

I was very pleased to be involved as co-supervisor of Phoebe during her Honours year. Read the original post HERE.

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Introducing Isityumzi

My paper describing a new fossil lungfish was published yesterday in the journal PeerJ. In 2018 I was fortunate enough to travel to South Africa to stay and work with Dr Rob Gess, based at Rhodes University in Grahamstown (Makhanda) in the eastern cape of South Africa.

  • Read my original blog post about the trip HERE.

Although not represented by many specimens, this lungfish material is significant for a number of reasons. Firstly, it represents the ONLY Late Devonian lungfish known from Western Gondwana (South America and Africa), and secondly it hails from the Waterloo Farm Formation. During the Late Devonian when this lungfish lived (~372-359 million years ago), South Africa was situated next to the south pole!

It seems to have inhabited a thriving ecosystem, suggesting that this region was not as cold as the polar regions are today, but it still must have been subject to long periods of winter darkness – very different to the habitats that lungfish live in today!

The new lungfish is called Isityumzi mlomomde, which means “a long-mouthed device for crushing” in the isiXhosa language (one of the official languages of South Africa).

  • Read the full article in PeerJ HERE

I was supported by a Vice-Chancellor’s Award for Early Career Research in 2017 which enabled me to travel to South Africa to complete this research.

Below is an artist’s interpretation of life at Waterloo Farm back in the Devonian (by Maggie Newman). Isityumzi (bottom right) here is eating some Naiadites (bivalves) on the underside of a submerged log whilst an Umzantsia (an early tetrapod) cruises overhead.

Isityumzi-WaterlooFarm

Science in the Pub

Tune in to “Mornings” on ABC Adelaide radio at 9:30 this morning to hear me speak to David Bevan about Science in the Pub (SciPub) this Friday December 6th.

  • Listen to the ABC Adelaide radio interview HERE: Listen from 34min on 3/12/19.

Science in the Pub “brings together critical thinkers of all backgrounds in the shared interest of understanding, criticising, debating, and learning about science”. They hold meetings at the Rob Roy Hotel in Adelaide with a different topic each month.

This month it is one of my all-time favourite themes, “Great Evolutionary Transformations“. I’ll be speaking about how the first land vertebrates (tetrapods) evolved from fish around 400 million years ago, including some exciting new research I am working on right now. Then Dr Myall Tarran will talk about how the flora of Australia adapted to a changing climate, and our final speaker, Paul Curnow, will present on the evolution of whales.

SciPubDecember

This event is free to attend but please register your interest HERE.  Catch you Friday!