Field trip in Yunnan

Following on from the ISLEV meeting, I then spent four days travelling around Yunnan Provence in Southern China as part of an organised post-conference field trip. The idea behind these sorts of field trips are to allow foreign researchers to visit sites that they know from the literature, but that they might not get opportunity to do so otherwise.

day1

Day 1 saw us check out some Silurian strata close to Qujing before heading north to visit Fuyuan County. We were treated to some breathtaking views after a climb at the source Pearl River,  and then later guided through an epic cave system of the karst landform in Fuyuan.

Day2

Day 2 saw us leap up through geological time into the Mesozoic “Age of Reptiles”. We spent the day visiting Luoping Biota National Geopark. This was a real treat for the absolutely spectacular preservation of the fossils, but also the views. I was most excited to see Luopingcoelacanthus, the oldest known evidence of embryos preserved inside a coelacanth!

Day3

On Day 3 we moved back in time to the Cambrian, the time period when the earth saw unprecedented numbers and diversity of complex early life. At Chengjiang Fauna National Geopark we saw the oldest preserved animal community; it included strange early animals such as the fearsome Anomolacaris (thought to be an early relative of arthropods) and the truly weird Hallucigenia (it is so weird, those describing it thought they may be hallucinating) . Again we visited a “Geopark” built to conserve and research the local fossil fauna. I think it would be great to see more of these parks in Australia to protect our own unique geological heritage.

Day4

For our final day we returned to my favourite time period, the Devonian “Age of Fishes”. We stopped at a few different sites in Wuding County and were not disappointed. The rocks were absolutely full of fabulous fish fossils! I think the find of the day was Martha’s giant Holonema specimen ( a type of arthrodire placoderm). What a way to end a marvellous field trip filled with fossils, scenery and great food. Thank you to our colleagues from IVPP, Beijing, for this unforgettable experience.

ISELV in China

What is ISELV?, I hear you ask. ISELV stands for the International Symposium of Early and Lower Vertebrates, which basically means “a meeting for fish nerds” (especially fossil fish from the Palaeozoic). The 15th episode of this meeting was held this month in China.

The first ISELV was held in 1967 in Stockholm and has been held on average every 4 (or fewer) years since then. I’ve been lucky enough to attend this wonderful meeting previously in 2015 (Melbourne, Australia) and 2017 (Chęciny, Poland).

This year the “fossil fishy” global community descended upon Yunnan Provence in southern China to spend a week at Qujing Normal University. The week was meticulously arranged by our colleagues from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthroplogy (IVPP) in Beijing.

ISELV2019-Qujing

We enjoyed four full days of fascinating talks, and were treated to a field day in the middle of the conference out at some of the local Silurian and Devonian sites yielding vertebrate remains around Qujing. First we visited the Xiaoxiang site close to Dongpo village. Several high profile discoveries in recent years have been excavated from this site, including so-called “maxillae” placoderms (Entelognathus, Qilinyu), and some of the earliest complete bony fishes (Guiyu, Megamastax, Sparalepis). In addition to our excitement about hammering out some fossils at these famous sites, we saw some spectacular countryside scenery too.

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The second stop saw us visit the Xitun Fauna site which is younger than the Dongpo site, this time we were up in the Devonian “Age of Fishes”. This site has revealed some very important lobe-finned fishes, in particular Youngolepis and Diabolepis, which were found in the 1980s, and more recently forms such as Psarolepis, Achoania, Styloichthys and Meemannia.

I spoke on the third day on “New information on the pharynx of the Devonian tetrapodomorph fish, Gogonasus, revealed by synchrotron and neutron tomography.” I compared scans of a new specimen of a complete Gogonasus scanned using conventional micro CT, synchrotron and neutron scanning while also describing the anatomy of the gill arches of this fish. The arches appear to be somewhat reduced which could be an indication of increased reliance on air-breathing in this relative of the early tetrapods.

Alice and Jing in Qujing

Dr Lu Jing and Dr Alice Clement at ISELV 2019 in Qujing, China. 

Thanks to Min Zhu (chairman), Wen-jin Zhao (vice-chair) and the rest of the organising committee for putting on such a wonderful meeting! Also, I must acknowledge and give many thanks to eLife and Flinders University Impact Seed Funding which allowed me to travel to China and to attend this meeting.

 

STEM Women launches today!

STEM Women is an online directory of women in Australia working in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). STEM Women aims to promote gender equity in STEM by showcasing the breadth of scientific talent in Australia, enabling a diverse range of women to be offered exciting opportunities to progress their careers and personal capabilities.

The Australian Academy of Science developed the directory in partnership with the CSIRO, Science & Technology Australia, and the Australian Science Media Centre, with financial support from the Australian Government.

You can find my profile up there, or to search for other women working in STEM (or for general information about the scheme) go to: www.stemwomen.org.au 

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eLife Travel Grant

A big thank you to eLife for awarding me a travel grant! eLife is a fantastic organisation that publishes and supports the life and biomedical sciences. It runs a little differently to many other journals in that it is led by scientists and actively works to support EMCR’s (Early and Mid-career researchers). I published a paper with them in 2018 about the enigmatic stem-osteichthyan, Ligulalepis. My experience working with them was overwhelmingly positive and I’d very much like the opportunity to do so again.

I was one of seven researchers worldwide awarded a travel grant by eLife recently. (You can read about the other recipients here). This grant will help me to attend the upcoming International Symposium on Early and Lower Vertebrates in Qujing, China and present my work on the iconic Devonian tetrapodomorph fish, Gogonasus.

Thank you, eLife! 

Dingo – the neutron beam

Do you know the difference between neutron imaging and X-ray imaging (such as when using CT or synchrotron)? Unlike X-rays, which rely on electrons and attenuate depending on the density of an object, neutron imaging, as its name suggests, relies on neutrons. This means that how an object is imaged is not related to its density (as in X-rays) but instead on the chemical composition of materials (and other neutron attenuation properties).

For example, while X-rays are good at imaging your (hard) bone within your arm (surrounded by soft muscles and skin), a neutron beam would not produce a similarly clear picture.  However, often when trying to image really dense materials (such as metallic objects), X-rays fail to adequately penetrate. In contrast, using neutron imaging, materials that contain a lot of hydrogen (water, for example) will not image well but dense materials, such as many metals, allow the neutrons to pass through them and thus can be imaged.

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Together with my colleagues, Prof. Kate Trinajstic and Prof. John Long, I visited the OPAL reactor run by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) last month to image a spectacular specimen of the tetrapodomorph fish, Gogonasus. We believe we have the entire fish contained within one large “Gogo nodule” but wanted to avoid preparing it in the traditional way (using weak acetic acid to dissolve the limestone) in case there was preserved soft tissue inside.

We used the Neutron Imaging instrument, Dingo, and worked with instrument scientist, Dr Joseph Bevitt to scan this 375 million-year-old fossil fish. Having already imaged the same specimen using micro-CT and synchrotron imaging at the ESRF last year, this will provide a great study to compare the different methods.

Old Four Legs (Palaeo in the Pub)

Did you know that when the living coelacanth was discovered off the coast of South Africa in the 1930s it was considered the greatest zoological discovery of the 20th Century? The group of fish known as coelacanths (closely related to lungfish) are known from the fossil record ranging from the Early Devonian (~410 million years ago) up until ~70 million years ago when they suddenly disappear. It was long thought that they had perished alongside the non-avian dinosaurs and all the other animals that went extinct at the end of the Mesozoic era. Hence the discovery of the living “Lazarus taxonLatimeria, identified and described by Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer and J.L.B. Smith, caused quite a stir. This is what is known as a “ghost lineage” where we can infer the existence of an organism (we know it must have been alive) but there is no evidence known in the fossil record.

In addition to Prof. Richard Cloutier, this week we have been lucky enough to have ANOTHER coelacanth expert working with us at Flinders University. Dr Hugo Dutel from the University of Bristol has just published an incredible paper in the prestigious journal Nature examining the evolution and development of the brain and braincase of the living coelacanth (Latimeria) through ontogeny (the origin and development of an organism), in this case he has a growth series from foetus to adult. The work is all the more remarkable due to the rare nature of these elusive, deep-sea, ovoviviparous, lobe-finned fishes.

Alice Richard Hugo

Having both Prof. Richard Cloutier and Dr Hugo Dutel in the same city meant that it was a no-brainer to hold a FUPS (Flinders University Palaeontology Society) “Palaeo in the Pub” event. I was the third invited speaker for the special theme “Old Four Legs – the 400-million-year story of the coelacanth.” Richard gave the group an introduction to coelacanths, including the remarkable discovery of Latimeria 80 years ago as well as a brief overview of fossil coelacanths. I then spoke about the discovery and description of a new species of fossil coelacanth from the Gogo Formation that we are working on together, and finally Hugo spoke about his recent work on the living coelacanth.

It’s been an absolute pleasure to have Hugo here with John, Richard and I to talk all about coelacanths (my second favourite group of fishes). We have made good progress in our work on the new coelacanth, so expect an update on that shortly!

Poster

For the Love of Science

I’ll be on stage with Niels this Saturday (May 4th) and some other scientists and their brave partners for the next event put on by The Science Nation.

From the Science Nation website: “In the era of ‘alternative facts’ the need for scientists to share what they learn with others has never been more important. To find out how well actual facts are being shared from the source, the Science Nation is going to experiment on a panel of scientists and their partners to find out just how much information is transmitted. Join the Science Nation in May for some fun and to learn a thing or two as we put love and science to the test.”

This is surely to be a fun and exciting event and you might even learn some cool new science facts. Please come along and support Niels and I this Saturday from 4pm at the Science Exchange, (55 Exchange Place, Adelaide), tickets are just $10 if you book ahead!

BUY YOUR TICKETS HERE.

4LoS

Canberra visit

I’ve just spent two nights in Canberra with my colleagues, John Long and Richard Cloutier. We came to Australian National University (ANU) to scan some spectacular fish fossils Richard brought over from the famous fossil site Miguasha, Canada.

It is always lovely to visit our nation’s capital city as I lived here during the second half of my PhD, some 8 or 9 years ago. It’s a beautiful city and a great opportunity to catch up with old friends and colleagues.

It was a very fishy couple of days as colleagues from The Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology of China (IVPP in Beijing) also happened to be in town, as well as my two ANU-based PhD supervisors, Prof. Tim Senden and Dr. Gavin Young.

56582188_435525273918361_8420078724321378304_nDr Alice Clement (Flinders) with Dr Jing Lu (IVPP) and a model of Gogonasus

The CT facilities at ANU are some of the best in the country so I can’t wait to see our scan results. And needless to say, there was much talk about fossil fish, but also a few beers enjoyed!

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Dr Gavin Young (ANU), Prof Richard Cloutier (UQAR), and Prof John Long (Flinders) enjoying some beers at The Fellows Bar at Australian National University. 

Two years, two chapters, two books!

54523513_1128886560615464_1726450924550881280_nI returned to the office after a couple of weeks interstate to several packages on my desk. Two hard cover books were amongst my patiently waiting mail. I wrote two chapters for two different books about two years ago and the final hard copies had finally arrived – it felt like Christmas!

The first was a co-authored chapter with my colleagues John Long and Brian Choo on the evolution of fishes through geological time for the book “Evolution and Development of Fishes“, edited by Zerina Johanson, Charlie Underwood and Martha Richter and published by Cambridge University Press.

The second I have mentioned before: I wrote a chapter about the anatomy, evolution and diversity of the cranial anatomy of the lobe-finned fishes (sarcopterygians). This book examined the heads, jaws and associated muscles from early chordates up to mammals. I’m particularly proud of this one as my first single-authored scientific book chapter.  The full title of the book is “Heads, Jaws and Muscles: Anatomical, Functional, and Developmental Diversity in Chordate Evolution.” It was published by Springer as part of their “Fascinating Life Sciences” series and edited by Janine Ziermann, Paul Diaz Jr, and Rui Diogo.

Super Daughter Day

On Saturday I got to wear my “Super Hero Trainer” badge. I was exploring STEM (science, technology, engineering and maths) with girls aged 5-12 for Super Daughter Day in Melbourne.

The event was put on by Work180, a group doing wonderful things to further diversity in the STEM workforce across Australia and the UK, in fields including everything from mining to IT. They tackle the issue from both ends, working with employers and job applicants to better encourage diversity, inclusion and equality.

On the day we explored palaeontology and fossils in general, but also took a closer look at some of my favourite fossils that I work on. This meant the girls (and their parents) were introduced to some fossils, including the spectacular Gogo fish from Western Australia. There were some cool fossils to look at and hand around (the Megalodon tooth was a big hit!), fossils to dig up, and fizzy “bath bomb fossils” to prepare.

Super Daughter Day

I was super pleased to be involved in such a fantastic event, which also had the girls making slime, coding robots and engineering wacky inventions such as a piano made from bananas. Work180 say “Super Daughter Day was created to counteract gender stereotypes which are formed in children as young as 6 years old and to encourage young girls to explore STEM in a fun environment.”

This really resonated with me, as although I had been curious and excited about science as a young girl, during my school years I momentarily lost the spark. I’m not sure exactly why, but it might have been a tired science curriculum or teachers who were lacking the relevant support, resources or background to teach science passionately. Fortunately, in my later high school years I had several exceptional teachers who reignited my interest in science and saw me swing my focus from humanities back to STEM.

I’ve mentioned the idea of the “leaky pipeline” with respect to women in STEM before. One challenge we face is initially attracting girls to STEM, which events such as Super Daughter Day are clearly making great strides to combat. However, in my field of biology in particular, the bigger issue is not attracting, but retaining women. Female students make up the majority of students studying biology at both bachelor and postgraduate level, but after this stage the percentage of females drastically drops, with just 17% of senior academics in Australia (i.e. Professors) who are female. The situation is even worse for those who belong to minority groups or are further marginalised, such as for women of colour.

I applaud Work180 for the incredible work they are doing, and many thanks to Tanya Butenko for her coordination and to my wonderful mate, Amy Miller, for initial introductions. The Melbourne event was completely sold out, but Sydney and Hobart still have their events to come and I’m told there are tickets left! Click HERE to order yours now.

SDD with Rachie

*** See the original Work180 blog piece HERE